Literature Reviews on the FID?

Reviews of books, training programs, web sites, etc.

8 posts Page 1 of 1
Can anyone help me find literature reviews on the Flame Ionizer Detection unit?
I am specifically after reviews that detail the history and overview of the FID, any previous studies that may identify gaps in research, omissions in previous work or unanswered questions.
Is there any patterns or trends emerging with recent or not so recent studies on the FID and is there any disagreements or contraditions by researchers?
Any help is greatly appreciated. Thanks.

There are a couple of books from Hewlett-Packard with information about the FID.

"Detectors for Gas Chromatography-A Practical Primer" (1987)

"High Resolution Gas Chromatography, 3rd Ed." (1989)

They may not have the historical information you need but there are some references included so it's a start.

I did a review of the FID a couple of years ago. I have since changed jobs and I did not bring any of the material with me, so I can only advise that you do what I did, searches on Google and Scopus.

Some of the very earliest material was in conference proceedings, and in the (now defunct ??) Advances in Chromatography series. Who gets priority of discovery is one of the minor sqalls in the scientific teacup.

If you want an unanswered question; "what is (really and truly) the mechanism of the FID ?"

A gap: response per mole or per unit mass for a range of hydrocarbons introduced direct to the detector using a calibrated delivery device. With I thnk two exceptions all the studies of FID response factors have had them on the end of columns and GC inlets, with all the problems that go with them.

I would bet hard cash money that the vast majority of FID users think that it is a non-selective carbon counter, which gives it a uniform response per mole of carbon. Unfortunately not.

Peter Apps


With someof Peters cooments in mind I will throw in a reference as well.

"Chromatography Today" by "Poole and Poole", Elsevier, ISBN 0-444-88492-0 alternetively 0-444-819161-7.

Here in table 3.3 "Contribution to the effective carbon number (ECN)" is given for some C atom (1 for aliphatic/aromatic, 0 for carbonyls/cvarboxyls and some more).
It is also stated "Table 3.3 which in turn can be used to predict realtive response factors with reasoneble, if not absolute, accuracy [93-95]"

Can not say that I actually have used/confirmed the above in more scientific approach. As stated by Peter, would be intresting to know how these studies were performed.

93-95 references are:
93: W. Jost and H.E. Hauck and W. Fischer, Chromatographia, 21 (1986) 375.
94: J.S. Kang and S. Ebel, J. Planar Chromatogr. 2 (1989) 434
95: T. J. Good and A.G. Taketomo, J. J. Planar Chromatogr 2 (1989) 336.

With regard to Peter's post above. I do remember the puzzled look I got from a colleague as I commented that my favorite solvent for an FID was CS2. He was apparently concerned that I would not see analytes on the solvent tail.

(For those who have not encountered CS2: it gives no signal in the FID).

From memory, there was a paper that did some empirical curve fitting and then predicted response factors for various empirical formulas, with results that were accurate to within the usual variability associated with GC injections.

What struck me as the biggest puzzle was that just putting a branch into a hydrocarbon chain changes the response, not by much but enough to measure, and I was hoping to be able to use the FID for primary measurements of quantity in metrology.

Peter Apps


Couple of other books:

Detectors for Capillary Chromatography, Hill and McMinn, Wiley

Chromatographic Detectors: Design, Function and Operation, Scott, MDI Dekker

An interesting aside, the comment that it is more sensitive with nitrogen make-up than with helium make-up seems to be related, as far as I can find, to one article.

I have always been intrigued by the low ionization efficiency (thank goodness for the really low noise.)

Most of the work of late that I have seen is about making them really, really small with Thurbide being one of the more successful ones.

Best regards.
I found the below mentioned journal very useful for understanding the mechanism of FID

Review on "Aspects of the mechanism of the flame ionization detector"
Journal of Chromatography A, 842 (1999) 221–227

Hope this may be useful for u


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